Biogas plants are industrial installations where biogas is produced through the process of methane fermentation of organic waste. Biogas is a mixture of gases, mainly methane and carbon dioxide, derived from the metabolic processes of bacteria. The biogas production process consists of several stages: raw material preparation, methanogenic fermentation, biogas purification, and then the use of pure methane for the production of electricity and heat.
Raw material preparation involves preparing organic waste, such as waste from the agri-food industry, straw, certain types of silage, for the fermentation process. The raw material is ground, and then it is sent to a digester, where the methanogenic fermentation process takes place. During this process, methane-producing bacteria break down organic matter into biogas and organic residues.
Next, biogas is purified from impurities such as carbon dioxide, moisture, and sulfur compounds to obtain pure methane. The pure methane is then used to generate electricity and heat through special power-generating units. This energy is then sold on the market.
Biogas plants allow for the disposal of organic waste, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and the production of renewable energy. As a result, biogas plants have become an important element of sustainable development strategies, both for countries and businesses. In recent years, the number of biogas plants worldwide has been increasing because more and more countries and businesses recognize the benefits of renewable energy production and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas plants are particularly useful in the agricultural sector, where organic waste is common, and the production of renewable energy is crucial for achieving climate change goals.